ADON is being powered by CryptoNote
Please refer cryptonote.org for more details and CryptoNote
The ordinary digital signature (e.g. (EC)DSA, Schnorr, etc...) verification
involves the public key of the signer. It is a necessary condition, because the
signature actually proves that the author possesses the corresponding secret
But it is not always a sufficient condition.
Ring signature  is a more sophisticated scheme, which in fact may demand
different public keys for verification. In the case of ring signature, we have a
group of individuals, each with their own secret and public key. The statement
proved by ring signatures is that the signer of a given message is a member of
group. The main distinction with the ordinary digital signature schemes is that
signer needs a single secret key, but a verifier cannot establish the exact
of the signer. Therefore, if you encounter a ring signature with the public keys
Alice, Bob and Carol, you can only claim that one of these individuals was the
signer but you will not be able to pinpoint him or her. This concept can be used
make digital transactions sent to the network untraceable by using the public
of other members in the ring signature one will apply to the transaction. This
approach proves that the creator of the transaction is eligible to spend the
specified in the transaction but his identity will be indistinguishable from the
users whose public keys he used in his ring signatures.
It should be noted that foreign transactions do not restrict you from spending
own money. Your public key may appear in dozens of others' ring signatures but
as a muddling factor (even if you already used the corresponding secret key for
signing your own transaction). Moreover, if two users create ring signatures
the same set of public keys, the signatures will be different (unless they use
same private key).
 Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Yael Tauman. How to leak a secret. In
ASIACRYPT, pages 552–565, 2001
Normally, when you post your public address, anyone can check all your incoming
transactions even if they are hidden behind a ring signature. To avoid linking
can create hundreds of keys and send them to your payers privately, but that
deprives you of the convenience of having a single public address.
CryptoNote solves this dilemma by an automatic creation of multiple unique
keys, derived from the single public key, for each p2p payment. The solution
a clever modification of the Diffie-Hellman exchange protocol. Originally it
allows two parties to produce a common secret key derived from their public
our version the sender uses the receiver's public address and his own random
compute a one- time key for the payment.
The sender can produce only the public part of the key, whereas only the
can compute the private part; hence the receiver is the only one who can release
funds after the transaction is committed. He only needs to perform a
check on each transactions to establish if it belongs to him. This process
his private key, therefore no third party can perform this check and discover
link between the one- time key generated by the sender and the receiver's unique
An important part of our protocol is usage of random data by the sender. It
results in a different one-time key even if the sender and the receiver both
the same for all transactions (that is why the key is called "one-time").
even if they are both the same person, all the one-time keys will also be
 Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman. New directions in cryptography. IEEE
Transactions on Information Theory 22 (6): 644–654, 1976.
Double Spending Proof
A ring signature is actually a class of crypto-algorithms with different
The one CryptoNote uses is the modified version of the "Traceable ring
. In fact we transformed traceability into linkability. This property
signer's anonymity as follows: if he creates more than one ring signature using
same private key (the set of foreign public keys is irrelevant), these
will be linked together which indicates a double-spending attempt.
To support linkability CryptoNote introduced a special marker being created by a
user while signing, which we called a key image. It is the value of a
one-way function of the secret key, so in math terms it is actually an image of
key. One-wayness means that given only the key image it is impossible to recover
private key. On the other hand, it is computationally impossible to find a
(two different private keys, which have the same image). Using any formula,
for the specified one, will result in an unverifiable signature. All things
considered, the key image is unavoidable, unambiguous and yet an anonymous
the private key.
All users keep the list of the used key images (compared with the history of all
valid transactions it requires an insignificant amount of storage) and
reject any new ring signature with a duplicate key image. It will not identify
misbehaving user, but it does prevent any double-spending attempts, caused by
malicious intentions or software errors.
 Eiichiro Fujisaki and Koutarou Suzuki. Traceable ring signature. In Public
Cryptography, pages 181–200, 2007.
Blockchain Analysis Resistance
There are many academic papers dedicated to the analysis of the Bitcoin's
blockchain. Their authors trace the money
flow, identify the owners of coins, determine wallet balances and so on. The
to make such analysis is due to the
fact that all the transfers between addresses are transparent: every input in a
transaction refers to a unique output.
Moreover, users often re-use their old addresses, receiving and sending coins
them many times, which simplifies the analyst's work. It happens
you have a public address (for example, for donations), you are sure to use this
address in many inputs and transactions.
CryptoNote is designed to mitigate the risks associated with key re-usage and
one-input- to-one-output tracing. Every address for a payment is a unique
key, derived from both the sender's and the recipient's data. It can appear
with a probability of a 256- bit hash collision. As soon as you use a ring
in your input, it entails the uncertainty: which output has just been spent?
Trying to draw a graph with addresses in the vertices and transactions on the
one will get a tree: a graph
without any cycles (because no key/address was used twice). Moreover, there are
billions of possible graphs, since every
ring signature produces ambiguity. Thus, you can't be certain from which
sender the transaction-edge comes to
the address-vertice. Depending on the size of the ring you will guess from "one
of two" to "one out of a thousand".
Every next transaction increases the entropy and creates additional obstacles
A standard CryptoNote transaction is generated by the following sequence covered
the white paper.
Bob decides to spend an output, which was sent to the one-time public key. He
Extra (1), TxOutNumber (2), and his Account private key (3) to recover his
private key (4).
When sending a transaction to Carol, Bob generates its Extra value by random
uses Extra (6), TxOutNumber (7)and Carol's Account public key (8) to get her
public key (9).
In the input Bob hides the link to his output among the foreign keys (10). To
prevent double-spending he also packs the Key image, derived from his One-time
private key (11). Finally, Bob signs the transaction, using his One-time private
(12), all the public keys (13) and Key Image (14). He appends the resulting Ring
Signature to the end of the transaction (15).
A decentralized payment system must not depend on a single person's decisions,
if this person is a core developer. Hard constants and magic numbers in the code
deter the system's evolution and therefore should be eliminated (or at least be
down to the
minimum). Every crucial limit (like max block size or min fee amount) should be
calculated based on the system's previous state. Therefore, it always changes
adaptively and independently, allowing the network to develop on it's own.
CryptoNote has the following parameters which adjust automatically for each new
block: 1) Difficulty. The general idea of our algorithm is to sum all the work
nodes have performed during the last 720 blocks and divide it by the time they
spent to accomplish it. The measure of the work is the corresponding difficulty
value for each of the blocks. The time is calculated as follows: sort all the
timestamps and cut-off 20% of the outliers. The range of the rest 600 values is
time which was spent for 80% of the corresponding blocks.
2) Max block size. Let MN be the median value of the last N blocks sizes. Then
"hard- limit" for the size of accepting blocks is 2*MN. It averts blockchain
bloating but still allows the limit to slowly grow with the time if necessary.
Transaction size does not need to be limited explicitly. It is bounded by the
of the block.
The upper bound for the overall amount of ADON Coin: MSupply = 6456360400000000
This is a natural restriction based only on the implementation limits, not on
intuition like "N coins ought to be enough for everybody". To make the emission
process smoother CryptoNote uses the following formula for block rewards:
BaseReward = (MSupply − A) >> 19
where A is amount of previously generated coins. It gives a predictable growth
the money supply without any breakpoints.
Egalitarian Proof of Work
The proof of work mechanism is actually a voting system. Users vote for the
order of the transactions, for enabling new features in the protocol and for the
honest money supply distribution. Therefore, it is important that during the
process all participant have equal voting rights. CryptoNote brings the equality
with an egalitarian proof-of-work pricing function, which is perfectly suitable
ordinary PCs. It utilizes built-in CPU instructions, which are very hard and too
expensive to implement in special purpose devices or fast memory-on-chip devices
with low latency.